The traditional order of your strings, from thicker to thin, is G, D, A, and E, or, if the violin is facing you, from left to right, G, D, A, and E. The strings should correspond to these pegs:
the far left G string goes to the lower left peg
the inner left D string goes to the upper left peg
the inner right A string goes to the upper right peg
and the far right E string goes to the lower right peg.
My first teacher taught me something to help memorize the strings, "Good Dogs Always Eat" or G, D, A, and E. So I'm passing that on to you, or make up your own phrase and start your own tradition! I remember asking my teacher if good dogs always eat, what bad dogs always do, and she smiled and said, "Bad dogs always eat children who don't practice." Motivational techniques in education have changed a bit since I was a kid.
Slide your finger down each string starting with the G. See which peg the G string is wound. Slide your finger down the D string, again, see which peg this string is wound. Repeat this exercise with the A, and E strings. This is somewhat rare, but if your violin differs from this description, it is not strung in a standard way, take note of any discrepancy, and best to take it to a violin shop to have this corrected when you have time.
Try this exercise a few times, and do your best to memorize the string names and the pegs to which they are wound. Ask yourself, "Which string is attached to this peg?" for instance. This info will be vitally important when you begin to tune up your violin. One of the most common ways in which new students break strings, is by turning a peg that doesn't correspond to the string being tuned. Beware!
It is a very good idea to prepare for the possibility of breaking a string by having a set or two of extra strings available.